Animals in Romanian Folklore and Mythology

The way in which animals and nature are presented in folklore and mythology can tell us a lot about a nation’s cultural profile. Although in most cultures we encounter the belief that all animals were created / put on earth by a higher divinity to teach humans a lesson and challenge them, animal symbology and legends can vary.

Some cultures and religions believe that the man was created to rule over all the animals. Other cultures believe that animals are manifestations of a divine power. During medieval times Christian beliefs in a hierarchical structure of all matter and life emerged, The Great Chain of Being, an idea that humanity (with the king at the top) is a subdivision situated above animals (with the lion at the top).

Folklore and mythology are the domains where explaining and understanding real life events was done by the use of animals as symbols – thus creating a microcosmic representation for easier comprehension of something that seemed larger than life. The explanations become story lines and new situations and events are understood and can be dealt with only if explained though the prism of an archaic vision with its social norms, moral values, and traditions.

Animals in Romanian folklore and mythology are considered to have a positive interaction with humans (the farm animals, the ones humankind relied on), but they can also threaten and challenge us (the wild beasts), as well as be conferred fabulous, mythological powers (exotic animals).

Nicolae Grigorescu, Carul cu Boi – Cart with Oxen

The cow and the ox as white animals

In Romanian folklore the cow and the ox were seen as holy in the sens that even God loved them and bestowed upon them the gift of speech, one day a year, like people.

White symbolizes their purity and their economical value in working the field, as means of transport, as well as being a source of various foods.

Cow, as a symbol, stands for prosperity, fertility, and obedience. In folktales the cow defies evil and helps enrich the hero.

The ox is held on higher regards than the cow, seen as the farmer’s symbol of strength and wealth therefor an ox must never be sold.

The cow and the ox in folklore

In Romanian folklore, to protect a cow you can tie a red ribbon around one of her horn; you can feed her magical grains; you can hide in the shed various lucky items; and if you do milk the cow then you must fast during specific dates of the year so the cow won’t run out of milk.

At Christmas time, the best carols are the ones wishing the host to have lots of healthy cows.

In Romanian folk songs love’s value and meaning can only be compared to that of a cow.

On Pentecost, Rusalii, 31st May, custom asks to decorate an ox (symbol of fertility) with flower garlands and bells.The lads would then take the ox for a stroll around the village, from one house to the next, and the ox would be sprinkled with water (another symbol of fertility). The flower garland that decorated the ox was to be kept safe so that the field would be fertile that year.

Animals in Romanian Folklore and Mythology
Tradition of decorating the ox on Pentecost, Animals in Romanian Folklore and Mythology

Superstitions involving the cow

When a cow is about to have her calf, put some wheat, lemon, salt and pepper in a red cloth and tie it to the cow’s tail to keep the bad spirits away.

Don’t hit the cow with a pitchfork or she’ll have a bowlegged calf.

If you want to find out the year you will marry, go to the stables and kick the cow that’s lying down, saying ‘this year… I shall marry.’ If the cow stands, you have your answer. If she doesn’t, chose another year and kick her again… gently 🙂

The oxen can speak on the day of Saint Vasile, 14 January, and you can hear them do so if you go to bed in the manger – but you better watch out as you might not like what you hear.

The sheep was from God

The sheep, good, soft and gentle, could only have been God’s gift to all humankind. All you need to do when you are sick is touch the sheep to feel better.

Romanian folktales say that God Himself walks the sheep to pasture, and He plays the flute, feeling happy and content. Sheep are helpers, protectors and, in more than one instances, messengers of God – as is the lamb in the myth of Miorita.

The ram, with its golden fleece and painted horns at Christmas time is also a reason of joy and pride.

Animals in Romanian Folklore and Mythology
Ştefan Luchian – Cioban cu oi, Shepherd with Sheep

Folk rituals involving the sheep and the ram

On Sângeorz day, Saint George, on 23rd April and especially in the province of Moldova, shepherds sprinkle their sheep with water, to be abundant in milk.

On Rusalii, in Transylvania, the sheep are jumped over a life-giving fire (smoked), to protect them against evil spirits.

During the midsummer celebration of Sânziene or Dragaica (24 June), rituals involving sheep and flowers are performed.

The sacred sheepfold

Romanian folklore sees the sheepfold as sacred as a church altar. Millennial old rituals take place here and inherited tools play a sacred role, tools that are never removed from the spot, tools decorated with the symbols of the sun, the earth, the cosmos, or the heaven’s holy gates… The sheepfold’s hearth, where the fire had been burning for generations, is on high regards. For this reason, in its foundation one will find the bone of an ancestor, of a warrior who fought against the enemy of the country or against the wild beasts; a sacred bone, for the same reason one would bury the bones or relics of saints in the foundation of churches.

The sheep is sacred too. Touch it and any bad spirits that bothered you will leave.

Animals in Romanian Folklore and Mythology, sacred sheepfold
Animals in Romanian Folklore and Mythology – the Sheep

The bells hanging around the sheep’s necks, of various sizes, based on a rigorous hierarchy, are in harmony with the shepherd’s flute, with the song of the forest streams and with the rustle of the wind through the leaves and across the grassy planes.

Any sheepfold has a knapsack containing, at any given time, bread, holy water from the church or sanctified by a log from its holy hearth, as well as flowers kept from the Sânziene celebrations – all necessary during various rituals.

No one leaves a sheepfold without the smallest of gifts; a piece of cheese, a pipkin of milk, or at least a piece of bread for the road. Gifts from the heart.

The goat is a whole different story

The goat came from the devil, it is said in the Romanian folklore.

The myth of how the goat came to be

God took a handful of earth and created the sheep. So the devil wanted to do the same. He scraped some ground from the marsh, barely a handful and, not knowing what to do further, he decorated it with branches and shoots of grass instead of fur. He found his creation to be just as perfect as God’s. Yet something was missing… so he added a tuft of grass shooting from the goat’s chin, much like his own. Yet he couldn’t bring it to life. That was something only God could do.

Romanian folklore says that it is the horned scoundrel that takes care of goats, chasing them over the fields that they never sit still and he’s also the one that cuts their fur; that’s why it is all erratic and in tufts and uneven. You just have to take care of one and see for yourself.

Superstitions involving the goat

If you are gifted a goat on Saint Vasile, the angels will stay away from your home for fifty days.

Goats symbolize poverty as they eat a lot, stomp over grass and chew on all the green buds.

Caroling with the goat at Christmas time

Perhaps resonating of a pagan custom and definitely not related to the hellish imp is the winter custom of caroling with a goat mask while performing a ritualistic dance on a cheerful music to match the event.

Animals in Romanian Folklore and Mythology

The pig

Long ago, one creature cheated and lied to the gods so it was destined to grunt for a speech and to trundle through mud all its life.

The pig’s curse also says that the pig hates all humans, for he know he will be butchered, yet he forgets all about it whenever he is fed and joyfully stuffs itself.

Romanian Christmas custom asks for a pig to be slaughtered on Ignat, 20th December. It is said that, shortly before Christmas, the pig dreams of a sharp knife and stops getting fat. It is better to cut it or the wild beasts will have its meat.

It is also said that a farmer must see or, even better, spill the blood of a pig each year around Ignat to have wealth in the farmyard and on the fields the following year.

Superstitions involving the pig

The woman who doesn’t eat pig on Christmas Day or at Easter will have an easy childbirth.

On Ignat day, if you don’t see or at least hear the pig being slaughtered you should prick your finger so that you at least see some blood.

After the pig is slaughtered and cut, on Ignat, when the pig’s head is brought inside to be cooked, its snout must enter the house firs, for good luck and a rich litter of piglets in the new year.

Animals in Romanian Folklore and Mythology
The pig – Animals in Romanian Folklore and Mythology

The blessed donkey

Romanian folklore blesses the donkey for the donkey was blessed by Virgin Mary herself, after it carried her on its back all the way to Jerusalem, and later it carried Jesus too.

There is a heartwarming symbology behind the donkey’s mild appearance, an impulse to choose to be modest, devoted and unpretentious because big things will still cross your path.

The myth of how the donkey got its super-sized ears

Well, once when the donkey was but a foal he was a little bit naughty, walking at the back of the herd. So God scolded the beast for its incessant agitation and fret. Yet the young animal, like any young, pretended not to hear. God repeated Himself, the donkey said he still can’t hear Him. Being at the back of the group and all… So God pulled the donkey by its ears… And that’s why the donkey has such long hearing aids.

The horse

The horse is seen as a virile animal, a warrior yet often less valuable to a farmstead than a cow or an ox.

One must never eat the meat of a horse because it might have been ridden by a woman.

The dog and the cat

It goes without saying that the dog is loved by God for its qualities and his good and reliable nature, much as it is treasured by humans.

Romanian folklore says that the cat came to be from God’s glove, when He threw it on Noah’s Arch to catch the mouse.

The myth of why the cat and the dog fight

It is said that, long ago, the cat and the dog used to be married, yet the cat was a lazy and greedy wife, while the dog was a hard working husband. The two were always arguing with each other because of their different views and expectation of the world.

Superstitions involving the dog

If the dog digs in the yard, right in front of the house, it is a bad omen, foretelling death.

When there is thunder and lightning someone better sit next to the cat or the dog. Otherwise the devil might hide in their fur and the lightening will strike those nearby.

Animals in Romanian Folklore and Mythology, the wolf and the lamb
Animals in Romanian Folklore and Mythology, the wolf and the lamb

The two-faced wolf

Why two-faced? Because it has both positive and negative connotation, the wolf being good or bad, a friend or a foe – depending on the circumstances. Much like humans.

In Romanian folklore, the malefic wolf can be a pricolic or a vârcolacul. Pricolici are the spirits of malefic people who, awoken from their graves, take the shape of a wolf and roam the streets to harm whoever they meet. Vârcolacii are a general representation of all evil that hunts humankind and they can take a wolf’s appearance.

The positive connotation of the wolf is that of an animal-guide, accompanying the spirits of the dead to the netherworld.

There is a fascination story about the wolf as a symbol on the brave Dacian’s flag, the ancient inhabitants of the cultural region of Dacia, today Romania. But this is a story for another time.

Superstitions involving the wolf

If you caught shivers after a big fright, smoke around yourself the hair of a bear or the dung of a very hairy wolf.

If you travel under the new moon you better watch out for wolfs.

The two-faced snake

House snakes are seen as sending a positive vibe, not so the snakes one meets during various travels. This one you should kill (and not only for its Christian connotation), for ‘if you don’t it will turn into a dragon (balaur) in no less than two years time.’

One should not ‘believe the word of a snake’ or ‘harbor a snake in one’s bosom’, or harm will come in return. Snakes have strong connotations with magic and spells too. For example, cut with a silver coin the head of the first snake you see before Saint George day, put a clove of garlic in its mouth and on Saint George’s day it will help you see how vampires steal the milk from the cows.

The beasts showcased in Romanian folklore and mythology are fabulous and deserve separate attention or, who knows, their mythological powers might prove real. 🙂 Stay tuned.

As always, discover all my books on Amazon.

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Dogs, Man’s Best Friend, Illustrated by Art, Ancient World to 20th Century

Human's Love for Dogs as Illustrated by Art, From Once Upon a Time to the 20th Century by Patricia Furstenberg, photo Simon Matzinger, Source Unspalsh

The old claim that a dog and a man are the best of friend is validated by numerous records, be it art, history, folklore or books. Yet it requires no proof to anyone lucky enough to enjoy the company of a dog in modern day’s society. The stories and the inspiration behind art such as this is what fuels my writing.

I invite you to travel with me through a fast-paced, awe-inspiring journey from the past’s “once upon a time” to the 20th century illustrating the human-dog bond.

More to come in the following weeks on the astounding role dogs, these silent heroes, played during the Great War, World War II, the Vietnam Wat, and the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan as well as what it takes to become a Military Working Dog.

How dogs helped the human brain to evolve

There isn’t a shadow of a doubt that, at some stage during their passing on this planet, humans decided to domesticate wolves (the grey wolf). Why they did it, choosing a breed they will have to compete against for food, is mysterious enough to feed the imagination of many writers.

How dogs helped the human brain to evolve
How dogs helped the human brain to evolve . Source ancestry

Perhaps domesticating the cunning foxes failed or it was the super-olfactory ability of dogs that triggered the human determination. Or was it all a coincidence? Theories speak of more than one time when human attempted to domesticate dogs, starting as far as 20 000 – 32 000 years ago.
What is certain is that the canines evolutionary journey from wolves to dogs happened simultaneously with the human’s development of speech (about 150 000 years ago). The time when our ancestors’ acute olfactory capabilities began to diminish, their brain accommodating the extra neural synapses and cortex area dedicated to verbal communication.No wonder that dogs , with their super-olfactory ability, looked, all of a sudden, so much more appealing to have as companions. Not mentioning the cuteness of their puppies.

Dog and man in Ancient World’s art and history

Footprints in the Chauvet Cave: a child and his dog

Chauvet Cave located in the southern France is renowned as the site of some of the world’s oldest mural paintings, and not only.
At the back of the cave the soil and rock have preserved the footprints of a small child (estimated at about 1,4 m height and 8-10 years old) walking beside a dog. The trace is 45 meters long, enough for scientists to analyze and conclude that the child was walking and not running. What is amazing is that the prints he left show that at some stage the child slipped in the soft clay and that at some stage he stopped to clean his torch (proven by the stain of charcoal left behind).
Alongside the child’s footprints are those of a large dog or a wolf friend.

Chauvet Cave: human child and dog footprints 26 000 years old
Chauvet Cave: human child and dog footprints 26 000 years old

Dogs in Mesopotamia

The Epic of Gilgamesh

I still remember learning n school about oldest piece of epic world literature, written c. 2150 – 1400 BCE – that is 1500 years before Homer even put pen on paper.

It explores a theme as old as humankind, he quest for the meaning of life.

Dogs are mentioned and shown their importance in everyday life: they are the companions of one of the most popular goddesses of the region, the goddess Innana (Ishtar). She travels with seven prized hunting dogs in collar and leash.

Innana (Ishtar) and one of her seven dogs - source wikipedia
Innana (Ishtar) and one of her seven dogs – source Wikipedia

The Nimrud dog amulets

So many cultures still rely on amulets today, and thus was the role of the Nimrud dog artifacts. These are canine clay figurines discovered in Nimrud (modern-day northern Iraq) that were once buried under the main doorstep of homes for their protective power (it was believed they carried the dog’s protective power).

dog man art history, a Nimrud dog amulet

Dogs in Ancient Persia

Ancient Persians, too, associated dogs with divinity as a dog’s soul was thought to be constituted of one-third human, one-third wild beast, and one-third divine. But Persians also kept dogs for companionship, protection or herding. In the Persian faith of Zoroastrianism, it was believed that the way one treated dogs during one’s lifetime will have an influence on his / hers journey through the afterword.

a dog statue of Ancient Persia, Iran National Museum

Dog and man in the art and history of Ancient Egypt

4 000 years ago lived Abuwtiyuw, the first ever documented dog whose name is known. His tomb is near the Great Pyramid of Giza & a wooden statue of Anubis, the jackal-headed deity, was found next to his mummified body. He was a sighthound, like today’s greyhound.

Anubis is perhaps the dog most associated with pharaohs and Ancient Egypt, represented as a lying jackal or a jackal-headed man. Some new research done on the DNA of the contemporary Egyptian jackal showed that it belongs to the wolf family. Imagine that!

A limestone statue of Anubis
A limestone statue of Anubis

Dog and man through the art and history on Ancient India

Dogs in Mahabharata, the longest epic poem ever written

Also from school (who would have thought?) I remember the Mahabharata as being one of the most important texts of ancient Indian and world literature.

Written 400 BCE the Mahabharata features a dog that might have been an Indian Pariah Dog.

“The dog must come with me,” said Yudhisthira
“That is not possible,” said Indra. “All cannot attain heaven. The dog is old and thin and has no value.”
“In that case, I do not seek heaven, “replied Yudhisthira. “The dog was my faithful companion and I cannot abandon it. It sought my help and gave me unconditional love. The pleasures of heaven will mean nothing to me in comparison to its grief. It has done nothing to deserve abandonment and had none of the weaknesses of my wife and brothers. If it does not deserve to go to heaven, then neither do I.

dog man art history, Yudhisthira with a dog as a chariot from Heaven arrives - source Wikimedia
Yudhisthira with a dog as a chariot from Heaven arrives – source Wikimedia

Further evidence that dog and man have been the best of friends is depicted by the art and history of ancient India, China, Greece, Rome and Mesopotamia. Plenty of canines decorations are found in temples and mosaics from all over the world.

Dogs in antiquity: China

I feel I should mention dogs in ancient China because modern dog’s DNA analysis shows that all present dog breeds stem from the grey wolf in China that was tamed around 16 000 years ago. At the same time wild rice was used extensively, agriculture developed and first villages appeared.
Furthermore, the Chinese honored the dogs for thousands of years. Remember that Dog is one of 12 animals in the Chinese zodiac. People born under this sign are said to be loyal, trustworthy, and kind, qualities often associated with the dog.
There is a lovely Chinese saying translating in:

‘a dog would not mind if its master is poor, a son would not mind if his mother is ugly.’

Chinese proverb
an ancient Chinese burial dog statue, they came in pairs
An ancient Chinese burial dog statue, they came in pairs. Ab. 6th century.

An Ancient Roman dog footprint, a Greek pot and a dog cameo

Dogs in the art of Ancient Rome

I particularly love this dog footprint on a Roman terracotta, next to a statuette of a dog displayed in Vidy Roman Museum, Lausanne, Switzerland. I think it depicts the human’s affection and longing towards his departed dog.

dog man art history
Dog footprint on a Roman terracotta, next to a statuette of a dog – source Wikipedia

In the Georgian National Museum there is this Roman cameo of a dog. It looks like it is carved in stone with an oval frame hand made out of ceramic and, perhaps, sealed with gold. I love the dog’s playful pose. It tells of his comfortable life. Romans appreciated the dogs for their fidelity. I wonder if the woman wearing this cameo led a happy life.

dog man art history, A Roman cameo of a dog - source Wikimedia
A Roman cameo of a dog – source Wikimedia

The Dog from Pompeii

Pompeii was an ancient Roman city near modern-day Naples, in Campania, Southern Italy. It became renowned after Mount Vesuvius erupted in AD 79, burying the city and its inhabitants in 4 to 6m of ash and pumice. Today Pompeii is a precious, well-preserved archeological site and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

A dog mosaic was found in “The House of the Tragic Poet” – proof of the Pompeian love and appreciation for canines.

Pompeii -The House of the Tragic Poet - dog mosaic - source Wikipedia
Pompeii -The House of the Tragic Poet – dog mosaic – source Wikipedia


Dogs in the art of Ancient Greece

Protector, hunter and companion to the ancient Greeks who also invented the spiked collar to protect their beloved doggo from wolves, the dog enters Greek literature as the three-headed Cerberus guarding the entrances to Hades (the final destination for the souls of the dead). Greeks, too, called their god of the underworld Hades.

Cerberus, the three-headed hound of Hades on a 500 BC Greek pot
Cerberus, the three-headed hound of Hades on a 500 BC Greek pot

Dogs also feature in Plato’s Republic writings. His contemporary Socrates even considered the dog a true philosopher as a dog could distinguish between friend or foe just by looking at the human face.

Maybe you remember the story of Argos, the dog from Homer’s Odyssey, the only one to recognize his master who returned home after a twenty years of absence. Sadly, Odysseus was undercover and can’t acknowledge his dog’s welcome. So the old dog lays back on his spot and gives his last breath.

This typical Leagros Group artwork of the 6th century Greek art is striking. And it depicts the close relationship between men, dogs and horses. So much is said with the use of only a few colors.

Riders and dogs, art by Leagros Group, Louvre. Source Wikipedia
Riders and dogs, art by Leagros Group, Louvre. Source Wikipedia

Did you know that the Greeks were the first to carve stone in relief, in fifth century B.C., the antecedents of cameos? The carving principles they implemented are still in use today.

The Dogs in the art of Mesoamerica

The Mayan (today SE Mexico) believed that dogs guide the souls of the dead across the watery border and into the afterlife, Xibalba or place of fear, since hounds were such good swimmers. But the dog did not leave. Dogs always look after us, don’t they? The dog would stay to help the man, or woman, go through all the challenges that separated him from paradise.To prove this love humans hand for dogs, the remains of dogs have been discovered buried near human remains.

The Colima Dog

One of the first tangible proofs of human-dog interaction is the Colima Dog, West Mexico, dating to the Late Formative Period (300 BC-300 AD).
Art often represented themes important to the culture: weddings, children’s births, and royal feasts.
Made of terracotta (earth) clay burned in an oven, the Colima Dog shows a hairless dogs symbolizing both life and death themes, through its association with the places where he was found, near food (grains) remains and graves.

Colima Dog -a pot-bellied dog figurine from Mexico, State of Colima, 300 BC - 300 AD, ceramic
Colima Dog -a pot-bellied dog figurine from Mexico, State of Colima, 300 BC – 300 AD, ceramic – image source Wikimedia Commons

Dogs in Celtic and Norse ancient art

Nehalennia, the Celtic goddess of trading, shipping, horticulture and fertility. She is often depicted with a benign-looking dog at her feet. As with other cultures, the dog was associated with guiding and protection after death.

Celtic Nehalennia, dog man art history

More proof that dog and man have been the best of friends is shown through the art and history of medieval and modern times. Plenty of canines decorations are found in temples, mosaics, artifacts, or paintings from all over the world. Read on.

From protector, hunters and companions during ancient times, Medieval dogs were considered part of the family and even learned to perform tricks. But they also joined kings in battles. But dogs were also used to hunt wolfs extensively, who became extinct in the most of western Europe and especially England by the end of Medieval period. The deep connection that dog and man shared during the Middle Ages is depicted in various art objects (paintings, tapestries, objects of decor, coat of arms) and entered even the pages of history. See below, among others, the little dog in Van Eyck’s Arnolfini Portrait, the dogs in the Coat of Arms of Henry VII.

Dogs in Modern World art

Dogs frolicking in The Wedding Feast at Cana

Fast forward to the 16th century and I want to mention The Wedding Feast at Cana (1563), by the Italian artist Paolo Veronese because I got to see it with my own eyes.

The Wedding Feast at Cana (1563), by the Italian artist Paolo Veronese - and some very happy dogs. Source Wikimedia
The Wedding Feast at Cana (1563), by the Italian artist Paolo Veronese – and some very happy dogs. Source Wikimedia

Don’t be out off by its size (70 m², taking Veronese 15 months to paint it – and not alone). It tells a beautiful biblical story of the Marriage at Cana, at which Jesus converts water to wine. Plus there are dogs painted right in the center (it is said the painter himself is the one in white, holding the viola)

dog man art history, The Wedding Feast at Cana. Veronese in white, holding the viola and the two central dogs.
The Wedding Feast at Cana. Veronese in white, holding the viola and the two central dogs.

and one other dog is in the left.

The Wedding Feast at Cana - the dog in the left side.
The Wedding Feast at Cana – the dog in the left side

Notice how Jesus is placed in the center of the wedding feast? The bride and groom are at the left end of the table. Jesus performed his first miracle at Cana, turning water into wine.

Finally, a 16th century book on dogs!

“Lawes of the Forrest” by John Manwood is a book with a full 141 words title. The book was first published for private circulation in 1592. The 1598 edition is the oldest book in the library of London’s Kennel Club—the “biggest library of books about dogs” in Europe.

Book-Illustration of a dog from George Turbervile 1576 Booke of Hunting. Google Books Public Domain
Book-Illustration of a dog from George Turbervile 1576 Booke of Hunting. Google Books Public Domain

Apparently during the 16th century was easier to keep “little dogs”. For greyhounds or mastiffs one needed special hunting license issued by the king! Talk about bureaucracy.

The 1598 edition of John Manwood’s Lawes of the Forrest - about rules of keeping dogs. Source abebooks
The 1598 edition of John Manwood’s Lawes of the Forrest – about rules of keeping dogs. Source abebooks

Modern times are abundant with images of dog and man depicted as friends in art as well as entering history.

Gaugan’s puppies and Dogs Playing Poker

We’ll sail past the 19th century “Life with Three Puppies” by Paul Gauguin, inspired by Japanese prints and children’s book illustrations. Just look at those tails!

“Life with Three Puppies” by Paul Gauguin, dog man art history
Life with Three Puppies” by Paul Gauguin

I hope you will have a good laugh at this American artwork that came shortly after Gaugain’s: “Dogs Playing Poker” by Cassius Marcellus Coolidge, 19th to 20th century. Dogs do observe human faces and often copy us – any dog lover knows.

“Dogs Playing Poker” by Cassius Marcellus Coolidge, dog man art history
Dogs Playing Poker” by Cassius Marcellus Coolidge

While other pets and animals have undergone substantial changes in the way they are perceived throughout history dogs have endured the marks of wars and joys alongside humans, as constant companions, protectors and, of course, friends, as we have seen portrayed by the art of various cultures around the world.

I hope you will return to find out more about the way dogs and humans have faced together the many wars of the 20th and the 21st century.

Silent Heroes by Patricia Furstenberg
Silent Heroes by Patricia Furstenberg

My latest book is ‘Silent Heroes’, a highly emotional read, action-packed, a vivid story of enormous sacrifice and bravery that will keep you on the edge of your seat. It is a book extremely well researched, with authentic details and an epic sense of the place. The war and the military involved, Marines and dogs, are described with reverence, as are the civilians caught in the middle of the fire.

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