5 Secrets Revealed in Silent Heroes. A Mysterious Underground Fortress

5 secrets hidden silent heroes - Qala-e-Bost fortress

I love books with secrets. Especially enigmatic locations kept hidden from the general public. While researching for my latest contemporary novel Silent Heroes, I uncovered five secrets and revealed them: one mysterious fortress buried underground, one hush-hushed by politicians, one too dangerous to be researched and shared with the world, one inconceivable in the 21st century, and one heartbreaking in its humanity.

Qala-e-Bost, Afghanistan’s secret fortress now featured in Silent Heroes

Unbeknown to many, near Lashkar Gah, in the Helmand province of Afghanistan, rises the great fortress of Qala-e-Bost, an 11th-century castle that overlooks the life-giving Afghan River of Helmand. This is the mysterious fortress whose secrets are ready to bury the Silent Heroes. But will they give in?

Qala-e-Bost fortress, Afghanistan, a mysterious location in Silent Heroes

“The stones of Qala-e-Boost have seen wars as well as the joys of celebrations. They have known wealth and ruin. Early hymns of the Zoroastrian religion, one of the oldest religions in the world, were once performed here. One of them was the Nowruz, the famous ceremony dedicated to the Sun and marking the Iranian New Year and the Spring Equinox. Along the years Bost fortress has been used as a guard post for the traditional caravan trade from Iran to India. The Mongols, then the Persians have been here too; the Arabs, even the Russians. Leaders and warriors came here as attested by the terracotta figurines, the inscribed seals, and the many coins discovered here, and then they left.
Still, Bost remained.”

Silent Heroes
Qala-e-Bost fortress secrets andquote from Silent Heroes

Qala-e-Bost, a mysterious fortress hidden underground

The fascinating and less known detail about Qala-e-Bost fortress is that its five levels are underground and few visual images are available, let alone descriptions of its deep buried secret chambers: “the heart of the fortress, its well, going five levels underground. The well is a maze of corridors, stairs, secret rooms, and side entrances” (Silent Heroes).

So I threw my soldiers in a fight in the dark belly of Qala-e-Bost fortress. The idea that there are concealed, less-known meanings behind things in plain sight always fires my imagination.

Who dares enter the belly of the beast?

Silent Heroes: When Love and Values Are Worth Fighting for Patricia FurstenbergSilent Heroes, When Love and Values Are Worth Fighting for is a work of contemporary fiction inspired by the War in Afghanistan.

Amazon 5 Stars Review:
It is clear that the author did an amazing amount of research for this book. Over the last few years I have read many, many book written by our soldiers. All of these books were based on each soldier’s experiences. The author of “Silent Heroes” has captured the experiences of our military men and women. I highly recommend this book and I plan to read more book by this author.

Silent Heroes

You can BUY Silent Heroes now from Amazon UK, Amazon US, Amazon Australia, Amazon Canada, or Amazon Worldwide: link here to your preferred Amazon website.

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Looking UP: Street Lamps from Bucharest, Romania #travel #pictures

A Farola fernandina design lamp post from Bucharest against a blue sky

This past holiday I chose to look up, towards the sun, the sky and the buildings’ roofs. I discovered some surprising sights that put a smile on my face and sparked my writer’s brain (or so I liked to imagine).

An old-style street light in Bucharest, on Lipscani Street, guarding the border between new and old - image by @PatFurstenberg
An old-style street light in Bucharest, on Lipscani Street, guarding the border between new and old – image by @PatFurstenberg

Also bordering past and present – which side would you choose?

A twin, low energy prismatic street light on Calea Victoriei, bordering old and new. Bucharest. Image by @PatFurstenberg
A twin, low energy prismatic street light on Calea Victoriei, bordering old and new. Bucharest. Image by @PatFurstenberg

I was born in Bucharest, so I am quite proud of the fact that in 1857 Bucharest was the first city in the world to introduce kerosene lamp posts on its streets. The fuel was produced in one of the world’s first refineries equipped with modern facilities, found in the nearby city of Ploiesti. Of course, only Bucharest’s city center was illuminated this way and 1,000 kerosene lamps were used, this bringing a a new craft into light in Bucharest, that of the lamplighter.

A wall-bracket Farola fernandina style street lamp on Hanul lui Manuc. The plaque reads: "1857, Bucuresti, First Capital City in the world illuminated with kerosene lamps. image by @PatFurstenberg
A wall-bracket Farola fernandina style street lamp on Hanul lui Manuc. The plaque reads: “1857, Bucuresti, First Capital City in the world illuminated with kerosene lamps. image by @PatFurstenberg

Here is another wall-bracket street light on the same building. I like the way it seem to serenade both windows. And have you noticed all the details on the facade?

Lamp post on Hanul lui Manuc, Buchrest. Image by @PatFurstenberg
Lamp post on Hanul lui Manuc, Buchrest. Image by @PatFurstenberg

To stay with the Farola fernandina style street lamp and in the same neighborhood of Bucharest, Lipscani, here’s another one:

Lamp post in Lipscani area, Bucharest, Romania. Image by @PatFurstenberg
Lamp post in Lipscani area, Bucharest, Romania. Image by @PatFurstenberg

And not too far away:

Street light in Lipscani area, Bucharest, Romania. Image by @PatFurstenberg
Street light in Lipscani area, Bucharest, Romania. Image by @PatFurstenberg

Here’s a close-up and I didn’t even have to climb a building to take this photo!

Close-up of street light in Lipscani area, Bucharest, Romania. Image by @PatFurstenberg
Street light in Lipscani area, Bucharest, Romania. Image by @PatFurstenberg

We are on a smaller street now, the light pole has a plain design. But what you see behind, the white building with lots of windows and a smaller one in the attic (where the coffee shop is!), that building houses the amazing bookshop Carturesti Carousel, a must-see.

We visited the Village Museum, as we do each time we go to Bucharest, and this time discovered:

Twin lamp post in Village Museum, Bucharest. Image by @PatFurstenberg
Twin lamp post in Village Museum, Bucharest. Image by @PatFurstenberg

Have you noticed the twin rosettes and the metal flower on top of the pole? And here is another lamp post from the Village Museum. The museum closes well before sundown, but I image it to be enchanting during the night.

Classical lamp post in Village Museum, Bucharest. Image by @PatFurstenberg

Cismigiu Park, in the heart of Bucharest, is another one of our favorite places. Paddle boats in summer, ice skating early mornings or at dusk during winter, magical!

A very old, overgrown lamp post in Cismigiu Park, Bucharest. Image by @PatFurstenberg
A very old, overgrown lamp post in Cismigiu Park, Bucharest. Image by @PatFurstenberg

Look up, it pays off! We are still in Cismigiu Park (Fountain Park, you could translate), an area linked back to 1799, when ruler Alexandru Ipsilanti ordered that two fountains be built here. Again, a new craft and title was born, that of “Grand Fountaineer” – in charge of maintaining the good order of these two fountains!

But the real Cismigiu Park was designed during the middle of the XIX century by the Viennese landscape architect Carl Wilhelm Meyer at the order of ruler Gheorghe Bibescu.

Initially, in 1860s, there were only 60 lamp posts in Cismigiu Park. Electric lighting was introduced in 1890s. I wonder if this was one of them:

A very, very old, overgrown lamp post in Cismigiu Park, Bucharest. Image by @PatFurstenberg
A very, very old, overgrown lamp post in Cismigiu Park, Bucharest. Image by @PatFurstenberg

Excited to say that back then, as now, there is a newspaper stand in Cismigiu Park!

Moving on, here are a few more street lights from around Bucharest:

A low energy prismatic street light combining new technology with a classic design. Bucharest, Romania. Image by @PatFurstenberg
A low energy prismatic street light combining new technology with a classic design. Bucharest, Romania. Image by @PatFurstenberg
My very own, Narnia-style street light on Calea Victoriei, Bucharest. Image by @PatFurstenberg
My very own, Narnia-style street light on Calea Victoriei, Bucharest. Image by @PatFurstenberg

I hope you enjoyed looking up with me. Do return for more lamp posts, next we will visit Brasov and Constanta. Why don’t you subscribe to my newsletter or follow my blog?

Any thoughts? Comment below, I’d love to hear your ideas.

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Amazing, True Stories of WW1 Dogs via @PatFurstenberg #dogs #war #WW1 #truestory #history #LestWeForget

Amazing, True Stories of WW1 Dogs via @PatFurstenberg #dogs #war #WW1 #truestory #history #LestWeForget

If you read my previous posts you surely discovered the incredible variety of tasks dogs performed, willingly, during the Great War. No matter their size or breed, dogs found a place in the hearts of the troops, saving a great deal of lives in between.

Dogs have been man’s best friend for over 150 000 years, they offered comfort during peaceful times and support during battles. We saw how indispensable dogs proved to be in wars and why, how they helped soldiers in the trenches, how they wagged their tails as scouts and ambulance dogs and how saved lives as brave sled dogs during the Great War.

Some dogs were just mascots, others acted as real soldiers.

WW1 True Story: Steif, a mixed-breed German dog, saves the life of his master, Lieutenant von Wieland

During the German campaign on the Eastern front, a lieutenant leading an attack fell under the heavy Russian fire. Heavily wounded and unable to move, he sent back his men. At the same time back in the trenches, the lieutenant’s own dog, a Great Dane – Mastiff – hound mix, had gnawed his leash to set himself free. Steif, the dog, dashed o his master’s side through the rain of bullets and, with love and determination, he pulled the severely wounded man to safety. The dog only lost his grip once, when a bullet “creased” him from shoulder to flank. Right at the end, when his master was safe, another bullet penetrated the dog’s front legs, braking them.

Steif and Lieutenant von Wieland
Steif and Lieutenant von Wieland

Man and dog were rushed to the hospital and were both operated on. Wilhelm II, the German Kaiser (emperor) and king of Prussia came to their hospital bed and awarded each, man and dog, an Iron Cross ( military decoration instituted in 1813 by Frederick William III).

This is their true story, as told to Kaiser Willem II:

“Lieutenant von Wieland led a party of men in an attack on the Russian trenches. Seeing the task hopeless on account of the Russian fire, he, wounded, sent back the men who had set out with him and lay there in the blood and muck and filth of the battlefield: The Russian fire was so murderous that no one dared bring him in. Presently a dark form bounded from the German trenches, rushed to Lieutenant von Wieland’s side, grasped his coat between his teeth and, foot by foot, dragged him to safety. Once, but only for a moment, did he loosen his hold, and that was when a bullet creased him from shoulder to flank. The blood gushed from the wound, but the dog took a fresh hold and finished his job at the edge of the trench where willing hands lifted the lieutenant down to safety. They had to lift the dog down, too, because just then a bullet broke both his forelegs.”

WW1 True Story: Messenger dog Satan helped the Allied forces

Battle of Verdun took place between German and French soldiers on the Western Front between February and December in 1916, and more than 300,000 men lost their lives.

A section of French soldiers, outgunned and outnumbered, were ordered to hold out their area until reinforcements arrived. Yet days passed.

Their eyes cats on no man’s land, expecting death to rush towards them at any moment, the soldiers were stunned to see a blackish dog wearing a gas mask heading their way. Dog handler Duvalle recognized his boy, Satan, arriving with a vital message.

Satan the dog saved a contingent of French soldiers at the Battle of Verdun
Satan the dog saved a contingent of French soldiers at the Battle of Verdun

That’s when the German’s spotted Satan and opened all available fire on him in a desperate attempt to stop the messenger.

Duvalle called and encouraged his dog, urging him to push forward and directing him over the open death trap that was the battlefield, reminding him what they both learned during their training. The dog began running in a zigzag pattern to avoid the impact of the bullets.

Just meters before the French trenches two bullets found Satan causing the brave canine to crash in the dirt. His master could not take it and sprang from the trench, calling and encouraging his brave companion. ‘Satan – have courage my friend. For France!’ – were his last words yet they echoed into the dog’s heart who miraculously crawled to the French trenches, delivering his message of hope:

‘For God’s sake hold on. We will relieve you tomorrow.’

The astounded French soldiers noticed that Satan had been fitted with two wire cages to his harness, each containing a messenger pigeon. Quickly, an officer penned the co-ordinates of the German artillery onto two pieces of paper. Luckily, one pigeon made it through the German fire and back to the French HQ.

Only one hour later the German battery fell silent, minced by the French guns a short distance away.

‘The garrison was able to hold out until reinforcements came all because one hairy mongrel refused to die while his errand was still uncompleted and because he was too loyal to quit.’  (Albert Peyson Terhune, American War Reporter)

WW1 True Story: Taki, first war dog to carry messages for the Allies in World War 1

Taki was a Belgian Sheepdog (Belgian Malinois).

If you wonder, this is the difference between a German Shepherd and a Belgian Malinois dog.
If you wonder, this is the difference between a German Shepherd and a Belgian Malinois dog.

It was 1914 and the German troops, on their way to occupy UK, were rolling through Belgium. A unit of French Army found itself stranded between a river and the Germans. They were desperate to send message and call for reinforcements. Who will dare brave the bullets?

Taki, the youngest of the trained dogs volunteered. Or was chosen.

Messenger dogs training.
Messenger dogs training.

 A message was written in code and placed into a waterproof capsule that Taki had been trained to carry in her mouth. She left and everyone prayed.

Taki successfully went through the shell-worn fields, under a rain of Nazi bullets and poisonous gas and, soon enough, help arrived.

Messenger dog with its handler, in France, during World War I
Messenger dog with its handler, in France, during World War I

I hope you enjoyed the blog posts about dogs and the incredible help they gave during WW1.

Come back for new stories about the role of dogs during WW2 and so forth.

Do check out my book Joyful Trouble, A humorous read about an incredible dog and how he had found his true, yet unexpected calling. It is a book for all ages.

Joyful Trouble, Amazon Bestseller in eBook and paperback format
Joyful Trouble, Amazon Bestseller in eBook and paperback format

My adult fiction book, Silent Heroes, is a #1 New Release, a contemporary fiction novel,  filled with action and emotional twists and turns. “Silent Heroes” has a strong historical and cultural feel of the area when the action takes place, Afghanistan.

Silent Heroes, When Love and Faith Are Worth Fighting for
Silent Heroes, When Love and Faith Are Worth Fighting for
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Amazing Roles Dogs Played during WW1, part 2: Scouts, Sentries, Ambulance and Messenger Dogs via @patfurstenberg, #dogs #WW1 #history

Amazing roles of dogs played during WW1. Part 2: Scouts, sentries, ambulance, messenger dogs

During the Great War the military dogs first trained by military Scotsman Lt Col Edwin Hautenville Richardson proved invaluable as trench dogs. Other dogs of smaller size, did an amazing job as ratters.

Dogs used as scouts during WW1

These dogs were trained to point when an intruder was spotted (sniffed) and not bark since secrecy was the key to these missions. They could detect enemy scent up to 1000 yards away.

Scout dogs were trained to stiffen, raise their hackles and point their ail, thus indicated that an enemy was approaching.

Germans were the first to use scout dogs, sending them over no man’s land to spy on Allies’ positions.

Scout and dog patrol. Source metropostcard
Scout and dog patrol. Source metropostcard

Dogs used as sentries or guards

These dogs were invaluable especially during the night when they would prevent any night surprises coming from the enemy.

Either in the front lines, to guard against enemy incursions, or guarding important facilities or locations behind the lines together with their handler, dogs proved priceless.

A sentry dog watching after a soldier
A sentry dog watching after a soldier

They were trained to give a warning signal such as a growl, or snarl to indicate a suspect presence.

Sometimes dogs even worked alone in a trench, especially at night, to watch out for enemy activity while the humans rested.

Messenger dogs of WW1

Give their small size and speed, dogs soon proved to be much better at delivering messages than any human, especially when any other mean of communication was cut off or the battle was taking place in an inhospitable land, such as the jungles of Pacific Islands.

WW1 British messenger dogs and their handler
WW1 British messenger dogs and their handler

Dogs also braved the bullets, showing much determination in getting the job done.

The dogs were trained to ignore the fire of guns of all calibers, and were accustomed to the explosion of hand grenades near them.

A messenger dog during WW1
A messenger dog during WW1

Sometimes messenger dogs carried… other messengers.

Carrier pigeons in cages on back Airedales terrier WW1
Carrier pigeons in cages on back Airedales terrier WW1

Other dogs were trained as Ambulance or Casualty Dogs, Red Cross Dogs or Mercy Dogs

Although still informal, dogs helped a great deal during the Great War. It is believed that on both sides 10 000 dogs served in the Red Cross and these dogs undertook the most severe training.

A Red Cross dog trained to search for wounded soldiers while under fire, 1915.
A Red Cross dog trained to search for wounded soldiers while under fire, 1915.

One of my favorite pictures from the Great War depicts two canine buddies walking side by side, two Red Cross dogs.

The dogs were also trained to carry first aid and supplies for soldiers at the front - Getty source

Were they a team? One carrying medical supplies, the other one, with a gas mask on, trained to jump in the trenches, checking for the wounded soldiers? Were they taking strength from each other? Their body language tells me they were happy, determined on their task.

Germans were the first to begin training Ambulance Dogs, Sanitatshunde, in 1893.

A German Sanitatshunde - Red Cross Dog. WW1. Source Metropostcard
A German Sanitatshunde – Red Cross Dog. WW1. Source Metropostcard

“First Aid Dogs” were trained not to bark when they found a disabled soldier and to disregard dead soldiers. On locating a wounded soldier, the dog was trained to get close enough so that the soldier may open the first aid box the dog carried. Then the canine would tear a piece of the uniform or retrieve the soldier’s cap back to the kennel – to identify the fallen soldier.

A Red Cross dog taking a kepi from a wounded soldier back to the stretcher-bearer for identification of the wounded, The Great War
A Red Cross dog taking a kepi from a wounded soldier back to the stretcher-bearer for identification of the wounded, The Great War

Returned to the kennel the dog would bark and head back, showing he found an injured soldier.

Of course, this was in theory and real life situations forced a change in the way the Red Cross Dogs were trained as sometimes there was no cap and the loosest thing a dog chose to remove was often a bandage. Eventually dogs were fitted with a loose collar which they could grab and hold in their mouth as a sign they found a wounded soldier.

In the aftermath of a battle, the Red Cross dogs would localize the wounded and wait by their side for the stretcher bearers to arrive and pick up the soldier, transporting him to a hospital.

France, WW1. A training picture here shows a dog waiting for stretcher bearers where the wounded are lying. source doglowreporter
France, WW1. A training picture here shows a dog waiting for stretcher bearers where the wounded are lying. source doglowreporter

What is amazing is that dogs were indeed trained to recognize uniforms in order to tell friend from foe.

Mercy or Ambulance Dogs of WW1
Mercy or Ambulance Dogs of WW1

England, France, Russia and Germany – they all used military dogs trained for the the same purposes. And, true to their nature, the dogs often did more than it was expected from them.

Although some dogs were trained as messengers, when a buddy was in need they didn’t shied away from the task.

Prusco, a French dog that looked like a white wolf, is said to have saved more than a hundred men. On another occasion he dragged three wounded soldiers to a safe place, out of enemy fire, where they could wait to be removed from the battlefield.

The French war-dog Prusco was employed in carrying messages from a motor-cycle scout to headquarters. This dog and his companions penetrated the enemy lines on many occasions.
The French war-dog Prusco was employed in carrying messages from a motor-cycle scout to headquarters. This dog and his companions penetrated the enemy lines on many occasions.

Italians trained some of their dogs to carry ammunition over hard to reach mountain passes by means of a harness and strapped to their backs.

Dogs carrying ammunition strapped to their backs. Source metropostcard.
Dogs carrying ammunition strapped to their backs. Source metropostcard.

In France, WW1 saw the boom of the “Societe Nationale des Chiens Sanitaires” in France.

Allied soldier bandages the paw of a Red Cross medic-dog in Belgium, 1917.
Allied soldier bandages the paw of a Red Cross medic-dog in Belgium, 1917.

Of course, war propaganda was quick on picking up the civilian’s interest in war dogs, these silent heroes, and use it as this French postcards shows. This postcard (bellow) was banned in 1915 because censors felt its cruel spirit was demeaning to France.

French propaganda postcard of WW1
French propaganda postcard of WW1

So far we saw how the friendship between humans and dog started, some 26 000 years ago. we saw how dogs joined kings in battles and why dogs are so indispensable during war. We saw how dogs helped in the trenches. Next time we will look at dogs who pulled machine guns and sleigh and then at some mascot dogs of WW1 and WW2 as well as how the role dogs plaid during the Second World War changed. And we won’t stop there, so be sure to return and check new blog posts.

Do check out my book Joyful Trouble, A humorous read about an incredible dog and how he had found his true, yet unexpected calling. It is a book for all ages.

Joyful Trouble
Joyful Trouble, a book that reads like a movie

My adult fiction book, Silent Heroes, is a #1 New Release, a contemporary fiction novel,  filled with action and emotional twists and turns. “Silent Heroes” has a strong historical and cultural feel of the area when the action takes place, Afghanistan.

Silent Heroes: When Love and Values Are Worth Fighting for
Silent Heroes: When Love and Values Are Worth Fighting for – New Contemporary Fiction by Patricia Furstenberg
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Amazing Roles Dogs Played During WW1, part 1: Dogs in Trenches and Ratter Dogs via @PatFurstenberg #dogs #war #trenches #ratters #history

Amazing roles of dogs played during WW1. Part 1: dogs in trenches and ratter dogs

Although still informal, dogs helped a great deal during the Great War.

“War is hell”, said Union Army General Sherman referring to the Civil War, but he could have just as well referred to the Great War, a war of trenches, these narrow vertical graves that, ironically, are traced back to the Civil War.

A war pup and his soldier friend
A war pup and his soldier friend

Stuck in them for weeks at a time, dealing with cold, wet feet, disease, “mustard gas” (a poisonous gas), dead bodies; trapped between bayonets and deadly bullets from “no man’s land”, soldiers had little to hope for.

Soon enough, the military dogs that accompanied some regiments proved that were able not only to lift the soldier’s moral, but to save lives at the same time.

Dogs in trenches during the Great War

During one night in the French front trenches all the dogs present became suddenly uneasy. They were growling and were extremely agitated.

The soldiers knew their army dogs and their body language so they telephoned the main entrenchment for reinforcement. Less than half an hour after support arrived, the Germans attacked.

How did the dogs knew? Have they heard the Germans preparing for an attack in their trenches?

Dogs can hear a wider frequency noises than humans.

When humans hear noises in the sound wave range of 64–23,000 Hz (bass to high pitched), dogs can hear in the range 67–45,000 Hz (a much wider frequency).

Added to this there is the loudness of the sound, measured in decibels and dogs can hear sounds so quiet (at 5-15 dB) that human can’t perceive them (a whisper measures at 20 dB).

Captain with dog in trenches 1914
Captain with dog in trenches 1914

What about the dog’s ability to smell?

Have they discerned a sudden increase in gun powder scent rising from the German trenches or a sudden increase in body odor due to a combination of excitement/fear ahead of an attack and added number of soldiers?

A dog’s nose is so sensitive that even scientists struggle to quantify it. It is estimated that a dog can smell between 1 000 to 100 000 times better than a human plus dogs can smell each component in an odor. In proportion to its size, a dog’s brain has an area dedicate to smell analysis that is four times bigger than that of the human’s brain.

Ratter dogs during WW1

We need to keep in mind that WW1 was a war fought in the trenches. Soldiers lived there for many weeks at a time, facilities were nearby, food was available, wounded or dead corpses were sometimes at close quarters.

A Scottish Regiment and their Ratter Dog in the trenches of WW1
A Scottish Regiment and their Ratter Dog in the trenches of WW1

Rats were a daily reality of WW1. Small dogs were therefor kept in the trenches as “ratters”. Soldiers living in trenches encountered millions of pests during war including rats They fed on rotting food because there was no proper way of getting rid of rubbish in trenches A terrier dog shows off its catch after a 15 minute rat hunt.

Soldiers living in trenches encountered millions of pests during war including rats They fed on rotting food bc there was no proper way of getting rid of rubbish in trenches A terrier dog shows off its catch after a 15 minute rat hunt -source BBC
Soldiers living in trenches encountered millions of pests during war including rats They fed on rotting food because there was no proper way of getting rid of rubbish in trenches A terrier dog shows off its catch after a 15 minute rat hunt -source BBC

We saw why dogs were so indispensable during the war, as well as some of the tasks they had performed during WW1.

Come back to find out more about World War 1 dog scouts, sentries, Red Cross, messenger, mascots as well as the World War 2 dogs.

Two of my books are about dogs at war.

Joyful Trouble is a book for all ages.

Joyful Trouble, Based on the True Story of a Dog Enlisted in the Royal Navy
Joyful Trouble, Based on the True Story of a Dog Enlisted in the Royal Navy – World War 2

Silent Heroes is adult fiction about the war in Afghanistan.

Silent Heroes, When Love and Values Are Worth Fighting
Silent Heroes, When Love and Values Are Worth Fighting
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