Afghanistan, a Dangerous Landscape

Afghanistan dangerous landscape

Much or less is known about Afghanistan and its dangerous landscape. An old Afghan proverb says: ‘There is a path to the top of even the highest mountain.’ Of course there is, and a view to go with it. A history lesson too, I would add.

Jalalabad to Kabul National Highway, Afghanistan, a tarred dangerous landscape

This road is on World Health Organization’s list of dangerous roads

The 65-km stretch from Jalalabad to Kabul , also known as National Highway 08 (NH08), loops through Taliban territory and the Kabul gorge, the Tang-e Gharu gorge. Speaking of being trapped between Scylla and Charybdis.

But it’s not the threat of insurgency that makes Highway 1 so dangerous — it’s a combination of the narrow, winding lanes that climb up to 600 m through the Kabul gorge.

‘The highway snaked through the deadly desert, a ribbon of asphalt put there by the U.S. army as an illusion of U.S. soil under the tires, secure and everlasting.’

Silent Heroes by Patricia Furstenberg

The remote Wakhan Corridor, Afghanistan, a geographical dangerous landscape

On the North-West of Afghanistan a narrow, looking like a dagger, protrudes into neighboring China and separates the two more adjacent neighbors, Tajikistan from Pakistan. It is the Wakhan Corridor and the most remote place you can think of in Afghanistan, complete with wild river crossings, long slogs up steep mountains and many miles of beautiful single-track.

Although the terrain is extremely rugged, the Corridor was historically used as a trading route between Badakhshan and Yarkand (east and west). It appears that even Marco Polo traveled this way.

Noshaq – Afghanistan’s highest peak

At 7 492 m (24,580 ft) Noshaq is Afghanistan’s highest mountain peak and is part of the Hindu Kush Range, this 800 km mountains stretching at the north of Afghanistan like the spine of a sleeping dragon. Noshaq (also called Nowshak or Nōshākh) may be the highest peak in Afghanisatn, but the highest peak of the Hindu Kush Range is Tirich Mir (at 7,492 m, 24,580 ft) located in Pakistan.

After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979, mountaineers stopped visiting Noshaq because of the dangerous political climate. The laying of landmines in Noshaq Valley during the country’s civil war in the 1990s further isolated the enormous mountain.

The alluring Durand Line, a political dangerous landscape

The Durand Line is the 2,640-kilometer (1,640-mile) border between Afghanistan and Pakistan established in 1893 for political reasons. It is the result of an agreement between Sir Mortimer Durand, the secretary of the British Indian government at the time, and Abdur Rahman Khan, the emir of Afghanistan. The agreement was signed on November 12, 1893, in Kabul, Afghanistan. When the Durand Line was created Pakistan was still a part of India. India was in turn controlled by the United Kingdom. The United Kingdom ruled India from 1858 until India’s independence in 1947. Pakistan also became a nation in 1947.

The Durand Line is a historic, much disputed border that separates Afghanistan and Pakistan nations and families.

‘You want to ask why they don’t close the border, Marine? Think of the U.S. southern border, of Germany’s borders during the Communist Bloc and, lately, the North-Korean border. Could those be closed? Has the Durand Line, cutting through Pashtun and Baloch tribal areas, worked?

‘There is a natural flow of movement between Pakistan and Afghanistan that does not pose a threat to any of the two countries. Nor does it pose a threat to regional security and stability. It is the transhumance. The pastoral nomadism of livestock between fixed summer and winter pastures found on both sides of the Pakistan – Afghan border means that shepherds need to feed their livestock in winter to keep their families alive. And these families, residing on both sides of the border, feel stronger about their ethnicity then they do about their nationality.’

Silent Heroes by Patricia Furstenberg

Afghanistan’s Highway 1, the Ring Road, the Afghan Highway to Hell

Afghanistan’s H1 is a 2,200 kilometer nationwide highway network circulating Afghanistan. The road is extremely dangerous because of Taliban and insurgent attacks and ambushes, of roadside bombs as well as extreme weather conditions. Although police checkpoints are scattered along the road and patrols are sent out daily to secure portions of the highway when NATO convoys pass, roadside bombs and ambushes make Highway 1 one of the most dangerous roads in the world.

‘Both Smit and Welsh were part of a critical security unit operating at the nearby notorious bridge where AH1, Afghanistan’s Highway 1 or the Ring Road, crossed over the Helmand River. During the past ten years of war, Taliban ambushes and shrewdly placed IEDs have killed hundreds of troops and innocent civilians in this specific location. Every stop and search had the potential to become a lethal one for the soldier on duty, as performing searches on suspicious looking vehicles had a high potential to turn lethal, while pedestrian body search was something Muslims felt highly against. To help alleviate the situation the army introduced female soldiers in these checkpoints, their job being body searching Muslim women they estimated as suspicious looking.’

Silent Heroes by Patricia Furstenberg

I will end with one last quote from my latest novel, Silent Heroes.

‘‘You know how they call Afghanistan?’

A ‘highway of conquests and the graveyard of empires’ because so many military campaigns conquered the world and arrived here to fail.’

Silent Heroes by Patricia Furstenberg

Women Writing about War #war #womensfiction #literature #books

Women writing war fiction is a controversial topic and one close to my heart. The question I was asked most often after publishing “Silent Heroes” was: why I wrote a book about war?

To me, “Silent Heroes” is a book that asked to be written. The idea behind it began to germinate in my mind long ago. It took over two years of research and assiduous work for this book to see the printing press.

Having lived through a Revolution and the fall of the Eastern Bloc, I can see that the power of historical knowledge and historical locations is often overlooked. From my point of view, the situation in Afghanistan is of global interest. There are many similar historical hot spots throughout the world. My interest in the War in Afghanistan was stirred on understanding what a major influence the use of military dogs has on the lives of civilians. Most books written on this subject are from a military or political perspective. A retelling of true facts. I wanted to create a work of fiction that will appeal as well as stir emotions, something plausible, yet appealing to a wider category of readers.

We tend to read a book from the perspective of our own experiences. Some books, after reading them, manage to change the way we see our own life – and this is what I tried to achieve with “Silent Heroes”. Find out more about the symbolism behind its pages here.

I would rather have you ask me “why I wrote ‘Silent Heroes’, rather than “why I wrote a book on war”.

Women writers wrote about war many times over. But how many are known?

War is a part of life. As in life, there is fear in war, but there is also resilience and a raw lucidity in it.

War draws in all kinds of people, men and women, children and elderly, rich and poor. War stamps its tattoo on their lives, no questions asked, by killing their loved ones, by forcing them to relocate, to give up the mere life necessities in order to survive. To give up life, as they knew it, in order to stay alive.

Most war literature I came across during my lifetime and while researching for “Silent Heroes” and for “Joyful Trouble” before it was written by men. True accounts of battle and hardship. “War and Peace” by Russian author Leo Tolstoy must be the best known war novel. I have enjoyed Ernest Hemingway’s “For Whom the Bell Tolls” and loved, for its epic descriptions and sensitivity in portraying human beings and raw emotions, Margaret Mitchell’s “Gone With the Wind” in which an entire generation was wiped out by the Civil War.

The question that inevitably rose was:

What is the major difference between a war story written by a woman and one written by a man?

And I don’t mean linguistic differences.

When reading a book written by a woman, I tend to feel closer to the author than when to a male author. I find their writing style more interactive. This aspect does not involve characters, but the overall feeling I get when reading -reading for pleasure.

Male authors tend to focus on conveying information, on the courage of the soldiers, on their super-human acts and vigor and less on the emotions that trigger or haunt them. On the intensity of their pain, the taste of their passion, the gut feeling.

From a sociology-cultural point of view we are a product of our upbringing and of the society we live in. Considering ideological factors and forces, we are a product of our interactions with and of our reactions to society. It is only normal that this will reflect in a writer’s work.

What about the communications style?

Will the fact that men and women have a different communication style reflect in their writing? Much like a piece of art or a music sheet reflect the author’s core structure.

On the other hand, writing is very much a products of our biographical reading. Which brings us back to our upbringing, influencing us in everything we do.

But since we only speak of the war theme here, I think that this difference shows in the type of relationships the characters tend to built with one another.

If you look at a novel as it would be a river, I tend to see a woman’s writing running smoothly, in a fluid movement, while a man’s is almost bubbling in it’s banks. But this is only my own imaginary.

War stories are a two way narrative.

War involves those who actively take part in it and those who are sucked in it, no choice given. Soldiers and civilians. And civilians, too, deserve to be heard. Their emotions should be given a voice, too.

But what if we don’t know if a book was written by a man or a woman? Would we still be able to spot the difference? And how will that knowledge influence our perception of the book?

Again, we only look at war books here.

We are past the women’s rise to prominence during the mid-nineteenth century and past the women’s rights movements.

Do women still need to prove themselves by writing about war?

War is a topic monopolized by men authors throughout the centuries.

Four years ago The Guardian published an interesting article, “Male writers continue to dominate literary criticism, Vida study finds“, VIDA being a group of volunteers interested in drawing attention to gender inequality in the field of book reviewing. The results of the study shows that men appeared 66 percent more often in The New York Times Book Review; three times more often in the London Review of Books; The Times Literary Supplement and others had worse numbers.

If reputable publications involved in book reviewing choose less books by women, will this influence the reader’s / buyer’s choice and view of books written by women?

My view on this subject may be biased as I am both a woman and a woman writer penning stories about war. Yet I feel that little is known about war stories written by women.

Amazing fiction books on war written by women

  • Gone With the Wind by Margaret Mitchell (for the vivid image of how much the American Civil War changed people’s lives and characters)
  • Testament of Youth by Vera Brittain (an entire generation changed by WW1)
  • The Story of a Brief Marriage by Anuk Arudpragasam (for its hypnotic details of the Sri Lankan Civil War)
  • The Gold Lieutenant by Whitney Terrell (for depicting so truthfully the surviving nature of women during the Iraq War)
  • Suite Française by Irène Némirovsky (filled with the human sensitivity that often escapes WW2 written by an author who, sadly, died in the concentration camp at Auschwitz)
  • Nella Last’s war by Nella Last, an inside view of WW2 from a civilian’s point of view.
  • The People of Forever are Not Afraid by Shani Boianjiu (a touching tale of teenagers’ experiences in the Israeli Defense Forces)
  • The Lotus Eaters by Tatjana Soli (an amazing novel about the Vietnam War).
  • The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank (although an autobiography, is a must-read portrayal of the Holocaust)
  • Transcription by Kate Atkinson (a great spy novel of WW2)
  • The Night Watch by Sarah Waters (a great historical fiction set during WW2 London)
  • Goodnight Mr Tom by Michelle Magorian (an amazing WW2 read for children over the age of 10, especially boys)
  • A Boy in Winter by Rachel Seiffert (set during the WW2 occupation of Ukraine and Longlisted for the Women’s Prize for Fiction in 2018)
  • Good Evening, Mrs Craven: Wartime Stories by Mollie Panter-Donnes (short stories written during WW2)
  • The Tiger’s Wife by Tea Obrecht (set during in an unnamed Balkan country experiencing a rebirth after the collapse of communism).
  • Can you Hear the Nightbird Call? by Anita Rau Badami how three women survive the rise of the Sikh separatists in India).
  • Sparta by Roxana Robinson (about a war veteran’s battle with PTSD after the Iraq War).
  • Bel Canto by Ann Patchett (for the humanity shared by different cultures when held hostage by terrorists)
  • Silent Heroes by Patricia Furstenberg (on the strong connections between US Marines and the Afghan civilians during the Afghanistan War).